Common Bile Duct Stones – Choledocholithiasis

What are Common Bile Duct (CBD) Stones?
Gallstones are concretions of cholesterol and other pigments that are present in the bile. Bile is necessary for digestion and is produced in the liver. Gallstones are stones that form in the gall baldder. They can slip and form CBD stones. In about 5% of patients with CBD stones they can form primarily.

What causes Common Bile Duct Stones?
15% of people with gall stones form stones in the CBD. There are cholesterol stones and pigment stones. Causes may be increased cholesterol, bilirubin, reduction in bile salts, hereditary blood disorders, cirrhosis liver.

Risk factors for CBD stones
A family history of stones, old age and gender(women) could increase the risk. Obesity may play a role.

Complications of CBD stones
Pain, fever , jaundice , loss of appetite and nausea with vomiting may be symptoms. Sepsis can also result.

Diagnosis of CBD stones
Stones can be diagnosed with Ultrasound, CT scan or sometimes an MRCPcan also be used.

Laser Treatment for Common Bile Duct stones.
When CBD stones become symptomatic, they can be treated through the laparoscopic route using the Holmium Yag Laser. The laser can be used to open the CBD with minimal damage to the adjacent structures and the stone can be extracted in toto.

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