Sigmoidoscopy and Colonoscopy
What is Sigmoidoscopy and Colonoscopy
Sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy are endoscopic procedures where the endoscope which is a flexible fibre optic telescope is inserted into the rectum (motion canal) for the purposes of diagnosis and treatment of lesions in these areas. It is also an out patient procedure just like Upper GI Endoscopy. However the discomfort is a tad more. Sigmoidoscopy looks at the distal 60cms of the large bowel and Colonoscopy at the entire length, say about 150cms of it.
Indications for Colonoscopy
- 1 Occult blood in stool
- 2 Frank blood in stool
- 3 Bowel inflammation
- 4 Polyps
- 5 Tumors
- 6 Cancer
Procedures performed with Colonoscopy
- 1 Biopsy in inflammations
- 2 Polypectomies
- 3 Bleeding can be treated
- 4 Small tumours can be excised
- 5 Tumor Biopsy
Preparation for Colonoscopy
It is very important that the bowel is prepared well before Colonoscopy. The bowel has to be clear and stool free so that the lesions can be identified and biopsies done without any hassle. Constipation if not already present needs to be avoided. Hence all constipating agents need to be stopped a week before especially iron . A powder which is usually a laxative is used to prepare the bowel . The powder is mixed with two litres of water and is consumed within two hours . The patient usually has diarrhoea following this. The stool when it is liquid and clear signifies that the bowel preparation is done well.
Anaesthesia is not required usually . However, sensitive patients may do well with short general anaesthetic. A lubricant jelly is used to insert the colonoscope. The procedure lasts for about 20 min. Some discomfort may be experienced due to distension with air.
The patient may experience some discomfort and a sense of bloating . Patients usually leave within about two hours post procedure. However in some patients who have undergone biopsies which caused some bleeding or Polypectomies overnight observation may be necessary to watch for bleeding .
Laser Procedures through the Colonoscope
At the Laser clinic the doctors perform Polypectomies and excision of small tumours using the Ho Yag laser. The laser is a great tool to be used in these procedures as the procedure is seamless and pain free. Also the blood loss is kept to a bare minimum because of the beams nature.
Sigmoidoscopy and Colonoscopy – Indications and procedures:
- 1 Occult or frank blood in stool
- 2 Inflammation of bowels
- 3 Tumors and or Cancers
- 4 Biopsy in inflammations
- 5 Tumor biopsy